Last changed 21 Jan 2003 ............... Length about 1100 words (9,000 bytes).
This is a WWW document by Steve Draper, installed at

Web site logical path: [] [~steve] [courses] [APEC] [this page]

Learning in Higher Education

This is a page with references, links (pointers) for the lectures on learning in education in the APEC level 4 module.

Contents (click to jump to a section)

Links to web documents


ONLY those with an asterisk (*) are in the library.

*Bereiter,C. & Scardamalia,M. "Intentional learning as a goal of instruction" ch.12 pp.361-392 in L.Resnick (ed.) (1989) Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser (Lawrence Erlbaum) [This is exactly on my introductory lecture: about viewing learning as problem-solving and goal-based behaviour.]

*Cole,M. & Scribner,S. (1977) "Cross-cultural studies of memory and cognition" ch.8 pp.239-271 in R.V.Kail & J.W.Hagan (eds.) Perspectives on the development of memory and cognition (Erlbaum: Hillsdale, N.J.)

Draper (1997) "Adding (negotiated) learning management to models of teaching and learning" [WWW paper: ] [provided as handout]

*Finster, D.C. (1989) "Developmental instruction" 2 articles, in Journal of chemical education vol.66 no.8 (Aug) pp.659-754 AND vol.68 no.9 (Sept) pp.752-756 [On applying Perry. In chemistry library, in Joseph Black building?]

*Laurillard, D. (1993) Rethinking university teaching: A framework for the effective use of educational technology (Routledge: London).

*Kuhn, D. (1991) The skills of argument (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge)

*Marton,F., D.Hounsell & N.Entwistle (1984) (eds.) The experience of learning (Edinburgh: Scottish academic press) [Key book on deep and shallow learning work]

*Papert, S.A. (1980) Mindstorms: Children, computers and powerful ideas (Basic Books: New York).

*Perry, W.G. (1968/70) Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years (New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston) [Main Perry book. Level 2 Short Loan Education N299 1999-P]

Perry, W.G. (1988) "Different worlds in the same classroom" in P.Ramsden Improving learning: new perspectives (London: Kogan Page)

*Putnam H. (1975) "The meaning of meaning" in Mind, language and reality (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).

Rothkopf,E.Z. (1970) "The concept of mathemagenic activities" Review of educ. research vol.40 pp.325-336

Further work

Besides these references, or those of them in the library, are the web documents to read (see earlier section of this document).

I particularly recommend "thinking work" for the topic of these 5 lectures, for two reasons. Firstly, further library reading is not very extensive or convenient. Secondly, these ideas are not universally accepted, and their relationships not fully worked out. They need thinking about and questioning more than they need more facts, and that would be better evidence of real learning in this area. Perhaps a combination is best. Certainly I myself have read and re-read the Laurillard book and the Marton et al. book, finding it slow going because they provoke so much thought: are they right? where do their ideas break down and encounter exceptions?

But the best further work are the questions below, and more basically (and importantly): think of examples of your own for each thing: for each Laurillard activity, for what is deep and what shallow in each of several subjects.

Critical thinking questions

Here is a list of questions designed to prompt you to do on the subject of these lectures some of the linking advocated above. The advantage is: firstly, each question hopefully will require you to reprocess the material, and a rule of thumb is that the more processing the more learning and retention; and secondly, the more links made, the "deeper" the understanding and the more ways the same material could be re-used.

Web site logical path: [] [~steve] [courses] [APEC] [this page]
[Top of this page]