Last changed 1 Mar 2016.............Length about 300 words (3,000 bytes).
(Document started on 7 Nov 1999.) This is a WWW document maintained by Steve Draper, installed at

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Aspects of a learner's views at 3 different points on the Perry spectrum

(For a more printable version use perry2.html, and print it in landscape mode, with black/white not colour/greyscale print options.)

Student in position A Student in position B Student in position C
Student Role Passive acceptor Realises that some responsibility rests with the student. But what? And how? Sees student as source of knowledge or is confident of finding it. Debater, making own decisions. Wants to explore contexts; seeks interconnections.
Lecturer's Role Authority, giving facts and know-how Authority, where there are controversies, wants guidance as to which the lecturer favours. One authority among others. Values views of peers. Teacher as facilitator or gateway.
View of knowledge Factual; black and white; clear objectives; non-controversial; exceptions unwelcome. Admits 'black-and-white' approach not always appropriate. Sees no way to choose between alternative views. Feels insecure with these uncertainties. A matter of competing views or theories, with different supports. Evidence, not just conclusions, an important part of knowledge. Enjoys creativity, scholarly work.
View of exams Regurgitation of 'facts'. Exams are objective. Hard work will be rewarded. Quantity is more important than quality in demonstrating maximum knowledge. Quality is more important than quantity. Wants room to express own ideas, views.
Student confidence depends upon: The teacher Little confidence, high uncertainty. The student her/himself