Last changed 18 Nov 2008 ............... Length about 2,000 words (16,000 bytes).
(This document started on 15 Mar 2005.) This is a WWW document maintained by Steve Draper, installed at You may copy it. How to refer to it.

Web site logical path: [] [~steve] [courses] [APEC] [this page]

APEC reading list

Stephen W. Draper,   Department of Psychology,   University of Glasgow.

I suggest a priority for each reference, where 1 is a core reading, and 5 is a reference to show you the source of an idea, but there is little added value in reading it from the viewpoint of the course. So, for example, "[1: lectures 16-18]" means priority 1 (a core reading), relevant to the material of lectures 16 to 18.

Note that some other readings are web documents listed not here but on the companion page.


Carroll J.M. (1990) The Nurnberg funnel: designing minimalist instruction for practical computer skill (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT press). [1: lectures 6-8]

Carroll J.M. (1998) (ed.) Minimalism beyond the Nurnberg funnel (MIT Press: Cambridge, Mass.) [3: lectures 6-8]

Norman D.A. & Draper,S.W. (1986) (eds.) User Centered System Design (Erlbaum: London). [3: lectures 1-2]

Norman D.A. (1988) The psychology of everyday things (Basic books: New York) [now The design of everyday things] [2: lectures 1-2]


Baxter (2007) look for case study on this web site:

Belenky,M.F., Clinchy,B.M., Goldberger,N.R. & Tarule,J.M. (1986) Women's ways of knowing: The development of self, voice, and mind (Basic Books: New York) [Lib: Sociology H205 BEL3 ] [Priority 5 for the course, but 1 for your own ideas. Some relevance to taking Perry further (lecture 10), but an inspiring book for its own sake.]

Bereiter,C. & Scardamalia,M. "Intentional learning as a goal of instruction" ch.12 pp.361-392 in L.Resnick (ed.) (1989) Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser (Lawrence Erlbaum) [2: This is exactly on my introductory lecture (9): about viewing learning as problem-solving and goal-based behaviour.]

Black & Wiliam (1998) "Assessment and classroom learning" Assessment in Education vol.5 no1 pp.7-74 [A big review] [4: about feedback. lecture 17, and perhaps 11-12]

Butler,R. (1987) "Task-involving and ego-involving properties of evaluation: effects of different feedback conditions on motivational perceptions, interest and performance" J. of Educ. Psy vol.79 pp.474-482 [4: lecture 17]

Clark-Kozma debate:
*Clark, R.E. (1983). "Reconsidering research on learning from media" Review of Educational Research, vol.53 no.4 pp.445-459.
*Kozma, R.B. (1991). "Learning with media" Review of Educational Research, vol.61, no.2, pp.179-211.
*Special issues ofEducational Technology Research and Development (1994) vol.42 nos.1-3 [For a collection of papers on the Clark-Kozma debate] [1: technoscepticism. lecture 19.]

Coats,W.D. & Smidchens,U. (1966) "Audience recall as a function of speaker dynamism" J. of Educ. Psy vol.57 no.4 pp.189-191 [3: lecture 14, on Dr. Fox type experiments]

Cole,M. & Scribner,S. (1977) "Cross-cultural studies of memory and cognition" ch.8 pp.239-271 in R.V.Kail & J.W.Hagan (eds.) Perspectives on the development of memory and cognition (Erlbaum: Hillsdale, N.J.) [4: lecture 9]

Crouch, C.H. and Mazur, E. (2001), "Peer Instruction: Ten years of experience and results", American Journal of Physics, vol.69, no.9 pp.970-977 Also available at [2: EVS, technoscepticism and evidence. lecture 19.]

Cuban,L. (1986) Teachers and machines: The classroom uses of technology since 1920 (London: Teachers' College Press) [2: technoscepticism. lecture 19.]

Cuban,L. (1990) "Reform again, again, and again" Educational Researcher vol.19 no.1 pp.3-13 [3: technoscepticism. lecture 19.]

Cuban,L. (2001) Oversold and underused: Computers in the classroom (London: Harvard University Press) [2: technoscepticism. lecture 10.]

Draper (1997) "Adding (negotiated) learning management to models of teaching and learning" [2: lectures 15-16]

Draper, S.W. (1998) "Niche-based success in CAL" Computers and Education vol.30, pp.5-8 [2: technoscepticism. lecture 19.]

Draper,S.W. & Brown, M.I. (2004) "Increasing interactivity in lectures using an electronic voting system"
Journal of Computer Assisted Learning vol.20 no.2, pp.81-94 [4: EVS. lecture 19-20.]

Draper,S.W., Cargill,J., & Cutts,Q. (2002) "Electronically enhanced classroom interaction" Australian journal of educational technology vol.18 no.1 pp.13-23 [3: EVS. lecture 19-20.]

Dweck: see Mueller & Dweck (1998)

Finster, D.C. (1989) "Developmental instruction" 2 articles, in Journal of chemical education vol.66 no.8 (Aug) pp.659-754 AND vol.68 no.9 (Sept) pp.752-756 [On applying Perry. In chemistry library, in Joseph Black building?] [3: Perry related. lecture 10]

Foot,H. & Howe,C. (1998) "The psychoeducational basis of peer-assisted learning" ch.2, pp.27-43 in Topping,K. & Ehly,S. (eds.) Peer-assisted learning (LEA: Mahwah, NJ) [3: Peer interaction. lecture 13]

Hake,R.R. (1998a) "Interactive-engagement versus traditional methods: A six-thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses" Am.J.Physics vol.66 no.1 pp.64-74 PDF copy [1: EVS, technoscepticism and evidence. lecture 19.]

Howe, C.J., Tolmie, A. & Rodgers, C. (1992) "The acquisition of conceptual knowledge in science by primary school children" Brit. j. Dev. Psy. vol.10 pp.113-130

Howe, C., McWilliam, D. & Cross, G. (2005) "Chance favours only the prepared mind: incubation and the delayed effects of peer collaboration" British Journal of Psychology, 96, no.1 pp.67-93

Hunt, D. (1982) "Effects of human self-assessment responding on learning" Journal of Applied Psychology vol.67 pp.75-82. [2: metacognition. lecture 17]

Illich,Ivan D. (1970) Deschooling Society (Calder & Boyars: London) [4: Peer interaction/social perspectives. lecture 13,14]

Kolb, D.A. (1984) Experiential learning (Prentice-Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA) [4: reflection. lecture 17-18]

[not checked] Kolb D A (1976) The Learning Style Inventory : Technical Manual (McBer & Co, Boston)

Kolb, D.A. & Fry,R. (1975) "Towards an applied theory of experiential learning" ch.3 pp.33-57 in Cooper,C.L. (Ed.) Theories of Group Processes, (Wiley: London) [4: reflection. lecture 18]

Kozma (See Clark, above).

Kuhn, D. (1991) The skills of argument (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge) [3: Perry. lecture 10]

Laurillard, D. (1993, 2002) Rethinking university teaching: A framework for the effective use of educational technology (Routledge: London). [1: But only a few pages are on the model. lectures 11-12]

Lave,Jean (1988) Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics and culture in everyday life (CUP) [The arithmetic book] [4: social perspectives. lecture 14]

Lave,Jean & E.Wenger (1991) Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation (CUP) [The schools book] [4: social perspectives. lecture 14]

Lave,Jean (1991) "Situated learning in communities of practice" ch.4 pp.63-82 in L. Resnick, J. Levine, and S. Teasley (eds.) Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition pp.6382 (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association) [4: social perspectives. lecture 14]

Marsh, H.W. (1987) "Student's evaluations of university teaching: research findings, methodological issues, and directions for future research" Int. journal of educational research vol.11 no.3 pp.253-388. [1: A section only of this huge paper. lecture 14, on Dr. Fox type experiments]

Marton, F. & Säljö, R. (1984) "Approaches to learning" ch.3 pp.36-55 in Marton,F., D.Hounsell & N.Entwistle (eds.) The experience of learning (Edinburgh: Scottish academic press) [1: Key chapter on deep and shallow learning work. lecture 10]

Marton,F., D.Hounsell & N.Entwistle (1984) (eds.) The experience of learning (Edinburgh: Scottish academic press) [2: Key book on deep and shallow learning work. lecture 10]

Mazur: see Crouch & Mazur above.

Miyake,N. (1986) "Constructive interaction and the iterative process of understanding" Cognitive Science vol.10 no.2 pp.151-177 [1: Peer interaction. lecture 13]

Mueller. M. C. & Dweck. S. C., (1998) "Praise for Intelligence can Undermine Children's Motivation and Performance" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology vol.75, No.1, pp.33-52 [5: Motivation. lecture 9]

Nicol, D. J. & Boyle, J. T. (2003) "Peer Instruction versus Class-wide Discussion in large classes: a comparison of two interaction methods in the wired classroom" Studies in Higher Education vol.28 no.4 pp.458-473 pdf copy [4: EVS. lecture 19.]

Novak, G, Patterson, E.T., Gavrin, A.D., and Christian, W. (1999). Just-In-Time Teaching: Blending Active Learning with Web Technology [3: EVS. lecture 19.]

Papert, S.A. (1980) Mindstorms: Children, computers and powerful ideas (Basic Books: New York). [4: technoscepticism. Fascinating book anyway, a must for future teachers. lecture 19.]

Perry, W.G. (1968/70) Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years (New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston) [1: Perry. lecture 10]

Perry, W.G. (1988) "Different worlds in the same classroom" in P.Ramsden Improving learning: new perspectives (London: Kogan Page) [3: Perry. lecture 10]

Putnam H. (1975) "The meaning of meaning" in Mind, language and reality (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press). [4: Socially distributed knowledge. lectures 9]

Resnick,L.B. (1989) "Introduction" ch.1 pp.1-24 in L.B.Resnick (Ed.) Knowing, learning and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates). [4: lecture 14, on Constructivism]

Rosenthal,R. & Jacobson,L. (1968, 1992) Pygmalion in the classroom: Teacher expectation and pupils' intellectual development (Irvington publishers: New York) [2: Peer interaction. lecture 13]

Rothkopf,E.Z. (1970) "The concept of mathemagenic activities" Review of educ. research vol.40 pp.325-336 [5: Defines the word "mathemagenic, but not otherwise important. lectures 11]

Schön, D.A. (1983) The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action (Temple Smith: London) [4: reflection. lecture 17-18]

Snyder,Benson R. (1971) The hidden curriculum (MIT press; Boston, Mass.) [2: Metacognition, reflection. lecture 20]

Tinto,V. (1975) "Dropout from Higher Education: A Theoretical Synthesis of Recent Research" Review of Educational Research vol.45, pp.89-125. See also and [5: Student dropout, and motivation. social perspectives. lecture 13]

Twigg, Carol:
Twigg, C.A. (2003) "Improving learning and reducing costs: New models for online learning" Educause review Sept/Oct pp.28-38 [The Twigg paper to start with]
Set of Carol Twigg papers
One way into the 30 case studies [2: technoscepticism. lecture 19.]

Ware,J.E. & Williams,R.G. (1977) "The Dr. Fox effect: A study of lecturer expressiveness and ratings of instruction" Journal of Medical education vol.5 pp.149-156 [3: lecture 14, on Dr. Fox type experiments]

Ware,J.E. & Williams,R.G. (1980) "A reanalysis of the Doctor Fox experiments" Instructional evaluation vol.4 pp.15-18 [3: lecture 14, on Dr. Fox type experiments]

Williams,R.G. & Ware,J.E. (1976) "Validity of student ratings of instruction under different incentive conditions: A further study of the Dr. Fox effect" Journal of educational psychology vol.68 pp.48-56 [3: lecture 14, on Dr. Fox type experiments]

Wood, D. & Middleton, D. (1975) "A study of assisted problem-solving" British j. of psychology vol.66 no.2 pp.181-191 [3: lecture 17-18, contingent tutoring, scaffolding]

Wood, D., Bruner,J. & Ross, G. (1976) "The role of tutoring in problem solving" Journal of child psychiatry vol.17 pp.89-100 [3: lecture 17-18, contingent tutoring, scaffolding]

Wood, D., Wood, H. & Middleton, D. (1978) "An experimental evaluation of four face-to-face teaching strategies" Int. j. of behavioral development vol.1 pp.131-147. [3: lecture 17-18, contingent tutoring, scaffolding]

Web site logical path: [] [~steve] [courses] [APEC] [this page]
[Top of this page]