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Seven principles of good feedback practice

By Steve Draper,   Department of Psychology,   University of Glasgow.

The 7 Principles

Good feedback practice (by teachers to learners on their work):
  1. helps clarify what good performance is (goals, criteria, expected standards);
  2. facilitates the development of self-assessment (reflection) in learning;
  3. delivers high quality information to students about their learning;
  4. encourages teacher and peer dialogue around learning;
  5. encourages positive motivational beliefs and self-esteem;
  6. provides opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performance;
  7. provides information to teachers that can be used to help shape the teaching.


David Nicol has produced 7 principles for good feedback to students, one version of which are given above. If you want to understand what they mean, or why you should believe them, then read one or more of these:

David Nicol & Debra Macfarlane-Dick (2004) "Rethinking Formative Assessment in HE: a theoretical model and seven principles of good feedback practice"

Nicol, D. J. & Milligan, C. (in press/ 2005) "Conceptualising technology-supported assessment in terms of the seven principles of good feedback practice" In G. Gibbs, C. Bryan and K. Clegg (Eds) Innovating in Assessment (Routledge: Falmer)

David Nicol & Debra Macfarlane-Dick (2006) "Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice" Studies in Higher Education vol.31 no.2 pp.199-218

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