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(US) National Academy of Science learning principles

By Steve Draper,   Department of Psychology,   University of Glasgow.

These principles come from: How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (National Research Council, 2000.)
M. Suzanne Donovan and John D. Bransford (Editors) (2005) How Students Learn: History, mathematics, and science in the classroom Committee on How People Learn, A Targeted Report for Teachers (Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National research council of the national academies, the national academies press, Washington, D.C.)

  1. Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information, or they may learn them for purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside the classroom.

  2. To develop competence in an area of inquiry, students must:
    1. have a deep foundation of factual knowledge,
    2. understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework
    3. organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application.

  3. A "metacognitive" approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them.

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