5 Feb July 2017 ............... Length about 900 words (9,000 bytes).
(Document started on 20 Sep 2015.)
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Steve Draper, installed at http://www.psy.gla.ac.uk/~steve/myNewWave/green.html.
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How to refer to it.
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Department of Psychology,
University of Glasgow.
This page is to summarise and hold pointers about the "Green space" hypothesis.
The various maxi projects.
Some intro / key / favourite papers from the GreenSp literature.
1. Hospital window: not green, but effective.
2. ART: its about attention and its restoration?
3. But perhaps can think about this in relation to flow. Different kinds of
attention. Novelty yet irresponsibility: thus avoiding both boredom and
Some projects here on green space
have all supervised undergraduate research projects in this area.
- There have been two student projects showing that primary school pupils are
significantly better at concentrating on school work after a visit to a green
space, than after a break of some other kind.
- Paterson,L. (2015)
An Investigation into the Impact of
Outdoor Space and Exercise on the Attention of Primary School Children
(Student project) PDF
This study controlled for the amount of exercise.
- Correia,M. (2015)
An investigation into the restorative effects of the outdoors on
(Student project) PDF
Marta showed in her project that undergraduates performed better after a
break going to a park, than a break spent doing what they liked, or nothing.
Some lit. refs on green space
- Opezzo, M. & Schwartz,F.L. (2014) "Give Your Ideas Some Legs: The Positive
Effect of Walking on Creative Thinking" Journal of Experimental Psychology:
Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol.40 no.4 July 2014 pp.1142-1152
This paper shows how walking and Green Space independently promote "divergent
thinking", a common test of
i.e. that exercise is the not the explanation for the effect. Also, they
report that the positive effect on divergent thinking lasts no more than two
minutes after cessation of the exposure.
[Impact of Green Spaces]
- Berman, M.G., Jonides, J., & Kaplan, S. (2008)
"The Cognitive benefits of interacting with nature"
Psychological Science vol.19 no.12 pp.1207-1212.
- Kaplan, S. (1995)
"The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework"
Journal of Environmental Psychology 15, 169-182.
- Kaplan, S. (2001). Meditation, restoration, and the management of
mental fatigue. Environment and Behavior, 33, 480-506.
- Kaplan, S. and Berman, M.G. (2010)
"Directed Attention as a Common Resource for Executive Functioning and
Perspectives on Psychological Science 5(1) 43-57
- Kernan, M. & Devine, D. (2010)
"Being confined within? Constructions of the good childhood and outdoor play
in early childhood education and care settings in Ireland"
Children & Society vol.24 no.5 pp.371-385.
- Ulrich, R. (1984) "View through a window may influence recovery
from surgery" Science 224 (4647), pp.420-421.
Time of day effects on school tests that tries to use attention
restoration as an explanation
Sievertsena,H.H., Gino,F. and Piovesan,M. (2016)
"Cognitive fatigue influences students' performance on standardized tests"
This discusses a) "cognitive fatigue" in children cf. "attention restoration";
b) A time of day effect on test scores;
c) A 20-30 min. rest immediately prior to test also shows an effect.
We identify one potential source of bias that influences children's
performance on standardized tests and that is predictable based on
psychological theory: the time at which students take the test. Using test
data for all children attending Danish public schools between school years
2009/10 and 2012/13, we find that, for every hour later in the day, test
scores decrease by 0.9% of an SD. In addition, a 20- to 30-minute break
improves average test scores. Time of day affects students' test performance
because, over the course of a regular day, student's mental resources get
taxed. Thus, as the day wears on, students become increasingly fatigued and
consequently more likely to underperform on a standardized test.
Note however, that this study has a VERY tiny effect size (but reached
significance due to the huge sample size): so not only is this not about a
"green" intervention, but it seems too small to bother about.
Zhao project happiness at UBC
The survey questions
How are you feeling?
Welcome! This survey is about your immediate experiences and takes about 5
minutes to complete. You can participate anytime, anywhere on UBC Vancouver or
Okanagan campus, and as many times as you want!
Scales are mostly 0...10 or -10...0...+10, with 2 anchor points.
- How happy are you feeling at this moment?
- How stressed are you feeling at this moment?
- How energetic are you feeling at this moment?
- How anxious are you feeling at this moment?
- How relaxed are you feeling at this moment?
- How upset are you feeling at this moment?
- How tired are you feeling at this moment?
- How confident are you feeling at this moment?
- How busy are you at this moment?
- How beautiful is your current environment?
- How clean is your current environment?
- How quiet is your current environment?
- How spacious is your current environment?
- How hot is your current environment?
- How safe is your current environment?
- How comfortable is your current environment?
- How healthy are you feeling these days?
- How long have you been at UBC? (Please specify how many years and months)
- How satisfied are you with your life these days?
- How much financial stress do you feel on a day-by-day basis?
- Are you currently with any friends right now? If so, how many?
- What were you doing just before taking the survey?
- What is your gender?
- Which year were you born?
- Please indicate your exact location on the map: ...
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