Last changed 5 Feb July 2017 ............... Length about 900 words (9,000 bytes).
(Document started on 20 Sep 2015.) This is a WWW document maintained by Steve Draper, installed at You may copy it. How to refer to it.

Web site logical path: [] [~steve] [myNewWave] [this page]

Green space

By Steve Draper,   Department of Psychology,   University of Glasgow.

This page is to summarise and hold pointers about the "Green space" hypothesis.
The various maxi projects.
Some intro / key / favourite papers from the GreenSp literature.

1. Hospital window: not green, but effective.
2. ART: its about attention and its restoration?
3. But perhaps can think about this in relation to flow. Different kinds of
attention.  Novelty yet irresponsibility: thus avoiding both boredom and

Some projects here on green space

Maxine Swingler,   Niamh Stack   Steve Draper, have all supervised undergraduate research projects in this area.

Some lit. refs on green space

Time of day effects on school tests that tries to use attention restoration as an explanation

  • Sievertsena,H.H., Gino,F. and Piovesan,M. (2016) "Cognitive fatigue influences students' performance on standardized tests" doi:10.1073/pnas.1516947113

    This discusses a) "cognitive fatigue" in children cf. "attention restoration"; b) A time of day effect on test scores; c) A 20-30 min. rest immediately prior to test also shows an effect.
    We identify one potential source of bias that influences children's performance on standardized tests and that is predictable based on psychological theory: the time at which students take the test. Using test data for all children attending Danish public schools between school years 2009/10 and 2012/13, we find that, for every hour later in the day, test scores decrease by 0.9% of an SD. In addition, a 20- to 30-minute break improves average test scores. Time of day affects students' test performance because, over the course of a regular day, student's mental resources get taxed. Thus, as the day wears on, students become increasingly fatigued and consequently more likely to underperform on a standardized test.

    Note however, that this study has a VERY tiny effect size (but reached significance due to the huge sample size): so not only is this not about a "green" intervention, but it seems too small to bother about.

    Zhao project happiness at UBC

    The survey questions

    Project Happiness
    How are you feeling?
    Welcome! This survey is about your immediate experiences and takes about 5
    minutes to complete. You can participate anytime, anywhere on UBC Vancouver or
    Okanagan campus, and as many times as you want!

    Scales are mostly   0...10   or   -10...0...+10,   with 2 anchor points.

    1. How happy are you feeling at this moment?
    2. How stressed are you feeling at this moment?
    3. How energetic are you feeling at this moment?
    4. How anxious are you feeling at this moment?
    5. How relaxed are you feeling at this moment?
    6. How upset are you feeling at this moment?
    7. How tired are you feeling at this moment?
    8. How confident are you feeling at this moment?
    9. How busy are you at this moment?
    10. How beautiful is your current environment?
    11. How clean is your current environment?
    12. How quiet is your current environment?
    13. How spacious is your current environment?
    14. How hot is your current environment?
    15. How safe is your current environment?
    16. How comfortable is your current environment?
    17. How healthy are you feeling these days?
    18. How long have you been at UBC? (Please specify how many years and months)
    19. How satisfied are you with your life these days?
    20. How much financial stress do you feel on a day-by-day basis?
    21. Are you currently with any friends right now? If so, how many?
    22. What were you doing just before taking the survey?
    23. What is your gender?
    24. Which year were you born?
    25. Please indicate your exact location on the map: ...

    Web site logical path: [] [~steve] [myNewWave] [this page]
    [Top of this page]