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References for AL talk

By Steve Draper,   Department of Psychology,   University of Glasgow.

Chi: active learning framework (ICAP)
Chi,M.T.H. (2009) "Active-constructive-interactive: A conceptual framework for differentiating learning activities" Topics in Cognitive Science vol.1 no.1 pp.73-105 doi:10.1111/j.1756-8765.2008.01005.x
[First form of her framework]

Chi, M. T. H., & Wylie, R. (2014a). The ICAP framework: Linking cognitive engagement to active learning outcomes. Educational Psychologist, 49, 219-243 (lead article). doi:10.1080/00461520.2014.965823

Chi, M. T. H., Adams, J., Bogusch, E. B., Bruchok, C., Kang, S., Lancaster, M., Levy, R., Li, N., McEldoon, K., Stump, G. S., Wylie, R., Xu, D., & Yaghmourian, D. L. (2018). "Translating the ICAP theory of cognitive engagement into practice" Cognitive Science vol.42 no.6 pp.1777-1832 doi:10.1111/cogs.12626
[Notable study of teachers' difficulties in creating activities in line with the ICAP theory.]

Chi: Two other notable papers
Chi,M.T.H., Roy,M. & Hausmann,R.G.M.(2008) "Observing tutorial dialogues collaboratively: Insights about human tutoring effectiveness from vicarious learning" Cognitive Science vol.32 no.2 pp.301-341 doi:10.1080/03640210701863396
[Showed that learners watching a video of a tutorial is, under the right conditions, about as effective as being one of the learners interacting face to face with the tutor]

Chi, M. T. H., Kang, S., & Yaghmourian, D. L. (2017) "Why students learn more from dialogue- than monologue-videos: Analyses of peer interactions" Journal of the Learning Sciences, 26, 10-50. doi:10.1080/10508406.2016.1204546
[Videos OF monologue are less effective than of dialogue; both when viewed alone or in peer pairs.]

Dewey, John (1916) Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education (New York, The Macmillan company) GU library record
[Ch.12 is about the importance of arousing thought (through action)]

Dewey,J. (1910) How we think (New York: Heath). GU library record
[Discusses the realistic principle: cf."authentic tasks" in education]

Gee, James Paul (2003) What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy (New York: Palgrave Macmillan) GU library record
[Ch.1 contains his general learning principles]

Gee, James Paul (2004) "Learning by design: Games as learning machines" Interactive Educational Multimedia no.8 pp.15-23
[A revised version of his principles]

Maguire, Joe at al. (under review)
[Adds what the talk lacked: detailed analysis of a specific "Active" classroom activity.]

Kate Sanders, Jonas Boustedt, Anna Eckerdal, Robert McCartney, and Carol Zander. (2017) "Folk Pedagogy: Nobody Doesn't Like Active Learning" In Proceedings of ICER '17, Tacoma, WA, USA, doi:10.1145/3105726.3106192
[Literature review on "active learning" in computer science education]


A) Dewey: Dewey is important in numerous ways in education. In relation to Active Learning, Dewey is important in two ways:
a) He argued that activity was important (only) in arousing thought. That process is one meaning of "reflection". There are a number of different senses of "reflection" important in education. Some notes on different senses appear on this page.
b) He also argues for the realistic principle (Dewey 1910), which is about the greater value learners put on activities that are important to adults and society. Later, some constructivists would call these "authentic" tasks.

B) Gee: Gee published two versions of his principles (36 and 13 of them). Active learning appeared only in the first version, as the first:
      "1) Active, Critical Learning Principle. All aspects of the the learning environment (including ways in which the semiotic domain is designed and presented) are set up to encourage active and critical, not passive, learning."
The principles, but not the accompanying discussions, are reproduced on this page.

C) Chi:
Chi's many papers can be explored via my own list of the ones most relevant to me, including a pointer to her own website.

D) Scottish government: The Scottish government has issued various guides to teachers on using active learning. E.g.

  • 1     2     3

    Other pointers / refs on Active Learning

  • BBC news item (2016) on active learning. The BBC filed this under business not tech.; and push change in the teaching design rather than in the tech.

  • Chiu, P.H.P. and Cheng, S.H. (2016) Effects of active learning classrooms on student learning: a two-year empirical investigation on student perceptions and academic performance. Higher Education Research and Development Onlinefirst: