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Level 4 course "Recognition and representation":
Perceiving, acting, knowing, remembering

By Stephen W. Draper

This corresponds to handout 1.

Contents (click to jump to a section)


Questions for critical thinking

It is usual to provide some questions for further thinking, to stimulate deep learning. However, untypically, this section of lectures was all about getting you to consider deeper questions rather than introducing much new technical material. So hopefully most of what I said was in effect such a question (e.g. "is the concept of invariant sensible and/or useful?"). So I will only suggest one deep deep question:

Which of the questions I tried to discuss with you are in fact important issues, and which are not?

Reading list

  1. Top down/ Bottom up
    [TD vision in AI] Oatley ch.7 OR Boden p.180ff.
    [TD vision for psychology] Gregory

  2. Representations
    [representations: why powerful] Oatley ch.6 esp. p.141ff.
    [Anti-representations] Brooks' 2 papers

  3. Recognition is not the only function of vision
    Horizon transcript on the man who lost his body [lost proprioception, used vision to compensate]. See also Bernstein 4th edition, p.121; Sacks (1985).

  4. Invariants
    Gender from gait: Cutting (1978), Cutting et al. (1978)
    Invariant for age: Pittenger et al 1979; and Todd et al. 1980; see also Bruce & Green p.368ff.

  5. Gibson
    Bruce & Green chs. 10, 17. (And the Gibson books.)

  6. De-dissociations
    [Review the cases discussed in class to find illustratrations of problems with each dissociation.]

  7. Post-class
    Look at Gregory, and above all Gibson.


N.B. NIL means Not In Library i.e. not in the Glasgow University library


1950 The perception of the visual world Level 6 Main Lib Psychology D230 GIB2
1966 The senses considered as perceptual systems Level 6 Main Lib Psy D380 GIB and ASB
1979 The ecological approach to visual perception Level 6 Main Lib Psychology D230 GIB


Bartlett,F.C. Remembering (CUP) psy F290 bar

Bernstein et al. (1997) Psychology (Current first year textbook; 4th edition)

Berry,D.S. & McArthur,L.Z. (1986) "Perceiving character in faces: the impact of age-related craniofacial changes on social perception" Psychological bulletin vol.100 no.1 pp.3-18

Boden,M. (1977 Artificial Intelligence and natural man (Basic books) Computing J20

Bruce,V. & Green,P.R. (1990) Visual perception: physiology, psychology and ecology 2nd edition psy F10

Brooks, R.A. (1986) "A robust layered control system for a mobile robot" IEEE journal of robotics and automation vol.RA-2 no.1 pp.14-23. Engineering periodicals

Brooks, R.A. (1991) "Intelligence without representation" Artificial Intelligence vol.47 pp.139-159.

Cutting, J.E. (1978) "Generation of synthetic male and female walkers through manipulation of a biomechanical invariant" Perception vol.7 pp.393-405

Cutting, J.E., Proffitt,D.R. & Kozlowski,L.T. (1978) "A biomechanical invariant for gait perception" J.E.P.: Human perception and performance vol.4 pp.357-372

Gregory,R.L. (1980) "Perceptions as hypotheses" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society series B vol.290 pp.181-197

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von. (1968) Helmholtz on perception: its physiology and development compiled by Richard M. Warren, Roslyn P. Warren (Wiley) Psy D380 HEL

Horizon (1997, 16 Oct) "The man who lost his body" Programme shown on BBC2. Transcript etc. available as WWW document URL

Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1983) "Mental Models." (Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Mass.).

Katona, G. (1940/1967) Organizing and memorizing: studies in the psychology of learning and teaching (New York: Hafner). esp. pp.9-15 psy F35

Oatley,K. (1978) Perceptions and representations (Macmillan: New York) psy F10

Peirce , Charles Sanders , 1839-1914. Collected papers of Charles Sanders Peirce edited by Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss. (Cambridge (Mass) : Harvard U.P.) Phil HD152 1931-H

Pittenger,J.B. Shaw,R.E. & Mark,L.S. (1979) "Perceptual information for the age level of faces as a higher order invariant of growth" JEP: Human perception and performance vol.5 no.3 pp.478-493

Rorty, R. (1980) "Philosophy and the mirror of nature" (Blackwell: Oxford). NIL

Runerson, S. (1977) "On the possibility of 'smart' perceptual mechanisms" Scandinavian journal of psychology vol.18 pp.172-179 NIL

Sacks, O. (1985) The man who mistook his wife for a hat ch.3 pp.42-52 "The disembodied lady" (Picador: London)

Simon, H.A. (1969) The sciences of the artificial (MIT press; Cambridge, Mass.)

Todd,J.T., Mark,L.S., Shaw,R.E. & Pittenger,J.B. (1980) "The perception of human growth" Scientific American vol.242 Feb. pp.132-144 floor 2 GenSci periodicals

Wittgenstein, L. (1977) Remarks on colour (ed. by G.E.M.Anscombe) (Oxford: Blackwell)