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References on Human Computer Interaction

Introduction / general HCI

Norman D.A. & Draper,S.W. (1986) (eds.) User Centered System Design (Erlbaum: London).

Norman D.A. (1988) The psychology of everyday things (Basic books: New York).[now The design of everyday things]

Norman D.A. (1998) The invisible computer: why good products can fail, the personal computer is so complex, and information appliances are the solution (MIT press).

Landauer, T.K. (1987) Relations between cognitive psychology and computer system design ch.1 pp.1-25 in Interfacing Thought (ed.) J.M.Carroll (MIT Press: Cambridge, Mass.).

Landauer,T.K. (1995) The trouble with computers: Usefulness, usability, and productivity (MIT press; Cambridge, MA)

Preece,J., Sharp,H., & Rogers,Y. (2001) Interaction Design: Beyond Human-computer Interaction link

For the methods (thinkalouds etc.) see the big handout, which also contains further reading for each instrument.

For wayfinding, see the report by Nina Webster. You may borrow it from Lynda Young (at reception) to copy.

Minimal manuals

Carroll J.M. (1990) The Nurnberg funnel: designing minimalist instruction for practical computer skill (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT press).

Carroll J.M. (1998) (ed.) Minimalism beyond the Nurnberg funnel (MIT Press: Cambridge, Mass.)

Direct Manipulation

Hutchins, E.L., Hollan, J.D., & Norman D.A. (1986) "Direct manipulation interfaces" in D.A.Norman & S.W.Draper (eds.) ch.5 pp.87-124 User Centered System Design (Erlbaum: London).

Shneiderman, B. (1982) "The future of interactive systems and the emergence of direct manipulation" Behavior and information technology vol.1 pp.237-256.

Shneiderman, B. (1987) Designing the user interface: strategies for effective human-computer interation (Addison-Wesley: Reading, Mass.).

Laurel, B.K. (1986) "Interface as mimesis" in D.A.Norman & S.W.Draper (eds.) ch.4 pp.67-85 User Centered System Design (Erlbaum: London).

Laurel, B. (ed.) (1990) The art of human computer interface design (Addison-Wesley: New York)

Csikszentmihalyi,M. (1990) (Harper & Row) Flow: the psychology of optimal experience

Activity Theory

A.N. Leont'ev (1972/1981) "The problem of activity in psychology"

Jens Rasmussen
(1986) Information Processing and Human-Machine Interaction: an approach to cognitive engineering
(1992) "The ecology of work and interface design" Proc. HCI'92

Susanne Bødker (1989) "A human activity approach to user interfaces" HCI (journal)

Reason, J. (1990) Human Error (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).

Don Norman (1991) "Cognitive artifacts" in Carroll's (ed.) Designing Interaction

Draper, S.W. (1992) "Activity theory: the new direction for HCI?" in International Journal of Man-Machine Studies vol.37 no.6 pp.812-821.

Nardi,B.A. (ed.) (1996) Context and consciousness: Activity theory and Human-Computer Interaction (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT press)

Draper, S.W. (1999) "Analysing fun as a candidate software requirement" Personal Technologies vol.3 pp.117-122 Also at:

Focus groups

Most of the references for the instruments are in the big handout. However here are some for focus groups that weren't in the handout.

D.L.Morgan Focus groups as qualitative research (1988) (Sage: London) [SocSci A370 MOR2]

R.Foshay Guidelines for evaluating PLATO programs TRO technical paper no.2 (1992) p.23; available at: or locally here.

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