Tony Sanford


 

 

Phone Number: 

 (0)141 330 4058

 

Fax:

 (0)141 330 5086

E-Mail Address

tony@psy.gla.ac.uk 

Room Number

 557

 

 

I am a Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychology at Glasgow University .  I am a Cognitive Psychologist with a special interest in human understanding, and the psychology of language.  This page describes my research interests and most of my papers.

For information in vita form, see end of page.
 
 

                                                          Current Courses
 

                                                          Research Interests

My research interests are in the Nature and limits of human understanding.  At its most general, the research is of a scholarly and interdisciplinary nature, and is focussed at present on the organisation of a series of workshops and meetings on the nature and limits of human understanding.
    The focus of my empirical work is currently on how we understand language, in particular, the interaction between language processing and the utilisation of knowledge (in various guises).  My language research divides amongst several areas,  including these below - click for a description and for references to papers. To obtain a copy of any of these papers, please email me at:  tony@psy.gla.ac.uk.  Papers appear in the following sections, or the list can be accesssed in CV format:
 

For earlier aspects of my work, visit Tony's  Research History .

See also books and other papers.
 
 

                                            Books

1. Sanford, A. J. & Garrod, S. C. (1981) Understanding Written Language.  Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

2. Sanford, A.J. (1983).  Models, Mind and Man :  Gifford Lectures in Natural Theology.  Glasgow:  Pressgang.

3. Sanford, A.J.  (1985).  Cognition and Cognitive PsychologyLondon: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.  (As from 1986, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates).  (Also as Basic Books, from 1986, in USA).

4. Sanford, A.J.  (1987).  The Mind of Man:  Models of Human Understanding.  Brighton:  The Harvester Press.
 Also: (1987) by Yale University Press,   in the USA;
(1990) as La Mente de Hombre,   Madrid: Alanza  Universidad, in Spain.
(1993) as La Mente dell' Uomo,   Bologna:  Universale  paperbacks Il Mulino,   in Italy.

5. Moxey, L.M. and Sanford, A.J.  (1993)  Communicating Quantities:  A Psychological Perspective: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

6. Sanford. A. J. (Ed). (2003) The nature and limits of human understandingLondon: T & T Clark.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

                  Understanding Quantity Statements
 
 

Collaborators:  Linda Moxey,  Eugene Dawydiak, Nick Fay,  Kevin Paterson (University of Derby).
                     Frans Zwarts (University of Groningen), Andrew Stewart (Unilever Research Port Sunlight).
 
 

This research is concerned with:

Quantifier Papers:

Sanford. A. J. & Moxey, L. M. (2003).  New perspectives on the expression of quantity.  Current directions in psychological sciences, 12(6), 240-243.

Sanford, A. J. & Moxey. L. M. (in press).  Exploring quantifiers:  Pragmatics meets the psychology of comprehension. To appear in:  I. Noveck & D. Sperber (Eds). Experimental Pragmatics .  Palgrave MacMillan.

Sanford, A. J., Williams, C., & Fay, N. (2001).  When being included is being excluded:  A note on complement set focus and the inclusion relation.  Memory and Cognition, 29 (8), 1096-1101

Moxey. L. M., Sanford, A. J.  & Dawydiak, E.J. (2001).  Denials as controllers of negative quantifier focus. Journal of Memory and Language, 44, 427-442.

Moxey, L M & Sanford, A J  (2000)  Focus effects with negative quantifiers.  In M Crocker, M Pickering, and C Clifton (eds) Architectures and Mechanisms of Language Processing . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Moxey, L M & Sanford, A J (2000)  Communicating Quantities:  A review of psycholinguistic evidence of the control of perspective by quantifying expressions.   Applied Cognitive Psychology, 14, 237-255.

Paterson, K.B., Sanford, A.J., Moxey, L.M., & Dawydiak, E. (1998) Quantifier Polarity and Referential Focus during reading Journal of Memory and Language, 39, 290-306.

Sanford, A J,  Moxey, L M, and Dawydiak, E (1998) Connectives and anaphoric reference patterns to negative quantifiers.  In M A Gernsbacher & S J Derry (Eds)  Proceedings of the 20th annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Wisconsin-Madison. Mahwah, NJ:  Erlbaum.

Moxey, L. M.  &  Sanford, A. J. (1998).  Complement Set reference and quantifiers. In M A Gernsbacher & S J Derry (Eds)  Proceedings of the 1998 meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Madison, Wisconsin, August 1- 3.

Moxey, L. M.  & Sanford, A. J. (1997)   Choosing the right quantifier:  Usage in the context of communication.   In T Givon (ed) Conversation:  Cultural, Cognitive,  and Communicative Perspectives,  207 - 231;  Amsterdam:  J  Benjamins.

Sanford,  A. J., Moxey, L. M.  and Paterson, K. B. (1996)  Attentional focussing with quantifiers in production and comprehension.  Memory and Cognition,  24,  144-155.

Sanford, A J,  Moxey, L M,  and Paterson, K B  (1994),  Psychological studies of quantifiers,  Journal of Semantics,  11,  153 - 171.

Moxey, L M  and Sanford, A J  (1993)  Communicating Quantities:  A Psychological Perspective. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Moxey,  L M and Sanford,  A J (1993).  Prior expectation and the interpretation of natural language quantifiers. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 5, 73-91.

Moxey, L M  &  Sanford, A J (1992).  Context effects and the communicative functions of quantifiers, in:  N. Schwarz and  S.  Sudman (eds) Context Effects in Social and Psychological Research:  Implications for their use in Attitude Research.      New York:  Springer-Verlag (279-296)

Barton, S B and Sanford, A J (1990).  The control of attributional patterns by the focusing properties of quantifying expressions. Journal of Semantics, 7,   81 - 92.

Moxey, L M, Sanford, A J & Barton, S B (1990).  The control of attentional focus by quantifiers.  In:  K J Gilhooly, M Keane, R H Logie,and G Erdos, Lines of Thinking, Vol 1, Chichester:  Wiley.

Moxey, L M and Sanford, A J (1987).  Quantifiers and Focus, Journal of Semantics, 5, 189 - 206.
 
 

Risk and applications papers

Sanford, A.J., Fay, N., Stewart, A.J., & Moxey, L.M. (2002) Perspective in statements of quantity, with implications for consumer psychology.  Psychological Science, 13, 130-134.

Sanford, A J & Moxey, L M (2000) Risk Portrayal and Risk Appreciation as a problem in language use.     In:  L Lundquist & R J Jarvella (Eds) Language, Text and Knowledge ,   Amsterdam: de Gruyter.
 
 

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                         Language comprehension
 

Collaborators: Linda Moxey,  Simon Garrod,  Patrick Sturt,  Charles Clifton Jr, (UMass, Amherst), Asifa Majid (Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguitics, Nijmegen), Eugene Dawydiak.
 

We have been developing a  general model of language comprehension which is concerned with the role that world-knowledge plays in langauge comprehension (The scenario Mapping and Focus theory).   Current empirical research is aimed at understanding how plural anaphora works, and depth of semantic processing during comprehension as a function of sentential and discourse variables, and how this results in underspecified representations: see Depth of Processing

Papers are grouped under Focus and anaphora,  and General.
 
 

Focus and Anaphora Papers

Majid, A., Sanford, A. J. & Pickering, M. J. (under review).  Do interpersonal verbs lead to focus on causes or consequences?  For Language and Cognitive Processes.

Sanford, A. J., Sturt, P., Moxey, L.M., Morrow, L. & Emmott, C. (in press).  production and comprehension measures in assessing plural object formation.  In M. Carreiras & C. Clifton Jr.,

Stewart, A., Pickering, M.J., &  Sanford, A.J. (2000)  The time-course of the influence of implicit causality information: Focus versus Integration accounts. Journal of Memory and Language , 42,  423-443.

Sanford,  A  J  &  Moxey,  L  M (1995)  Notes on plural reference and the scenario-mapping principle in comprehension.  In C Habel and G Rickheit (eds) Focus and cohesion in discourse.  Berlin:  de Gruyter.

Garrod,  S C  & Sanford,  A J  (1994)  Resolving sentences in a discourse context:  how discourse representation affects language understanding.  In M Gernsbacher (ed) Handbook of Psycholinguistics.  New York:  Wiley.

Sanford, A J and Lockhart, F (1990).  Description types and method of conjoining as factors influencing plural anaphora:  A continuation study of focus, Journal of Semantics, 7, 365-378.

Garrod, S C & Sanford, A J (1990).  Referential processes in reading: focusing on roles and individuals, in:  Comprehension Processes in Reading, Flores d'Arcais, G B, Rayner, K, Balota, D (eds), Hillsdale, New Jersey:  Erlbaum.  (515-533).

Sanford, A J and Garrod, S C (1989).   What, when and how?  Questions of immediacy in anaphoric reference resolution. Language and Cognitive Processes,  4,  235 - 262.

Garrod, S C and Sanford, A J (1988).  Thematic Subjecthood and cognitive constraints on discourse structure.  Journal of Pragmatics, 12, 357- 372.

Sanford, A J, Moar, K and Garrod, S C (1988).  Proper names and the control of focus, Language and Speech, 31, 43 - 56.

Garrod, S C and Sanford, A J (1985).  On the real-time character of interpretation during reading.  Language and Cognitive Processes, 1,  43 - 59.

Sanford, A J, Garrod, S C, Lucas, A and Henderson, R (1984), Pronouns without antecedents?  Journal of Semantics, 2, 303 - 318

Anderson, Anne, Garrod, S C and Sanford, A J (1983).  The accessibility of pronominal antecedents as a function of episode shifts in narrative texts.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 35A, 427 - 440.

Garrod, S C and Sanford, A J (1982).  The mental interpretation of discourse in a focused memory system:  implications for the interpretation of anaphoric noun-phrases. Journal of Semantics, 1,   21 - 41.

Garrod,  S C  and Sanford,  A J (1982),  Bridging inferences and the extended domain of reference.  In J Long and A Baddeley (eds) Attention and Performance 9,  311 - 346.

Sanford, A J and Garrod, S C (1980).  Memory in text comprehension:  the problem of reference.  In  R S Nickerson (ed), Attention and Performance8, Hillsdale, N H;  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Garrod, S C & Sanford, A J (1978).  Anaphora:  A problem for text comprehension.  In R N Campbell & P T Smith (Eds), Recent Advances in the Psychology of Language, London:  Plenum Press.
 

General papers

Sanford, A. J. & Garrod, S.C. (in press).  Memory Based approaches and beyond.  Discourse Processes.

Sanford, A J  &  Moxey, L M (2000)   What are mental models made of? in G Rickheit and C Habel (Eds)  Mental Models in Discourse Processing and Reasoning.  North Holland: Elsevier.

Garrod, S., & Sanford, A. J (1999)  Incrementality in discourse understanding.  In H van Oostendorp & S R Goldman (Eds), The construction of mental representations during reading.  Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Sanford, A. J. (1999)  Word meaning in discourse processing:  A tutorial review.  In S.C. Garrod and M.J. Pickering (Eds),  Language Processing,  Psychology Press.

Sanford, A.J. & Garrod, S.C. (1998). The role of scenario mapping in text comprehension, Discourse Processes,  26, 159 - 190.

Sanford, A.J., Clegg, M., & Majid, A. (1998) The influence of Character Type on Processing Background Information in Narrative Discourse. Memory and Cognition, 26, 1323-1329.

Traxler, M.,  Sanford, A. J.,  Aked, L.M.,  and Moxey,  L. M. (1997)  Processing causals and diagnostics in discourse.  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Language,  Memory and Cognition, 23, 87-101.

Sanford,  A   J,  Barton,  S B,  Moxey,  L M,  & Paterson, K B (1995)  Cohesion-processes,  coherence,  and anomaly detection.  In C Habel and G Rickheit (eds) Focus and Cohesion in discourse.,  Berlin: de Gruyter.

Sanford, A. J. & Moxey, L. M. (1995)  Aspects of coherence in written communication:  a psychological perspective.  In M A Gernsbacher and T Givon (eds)  Coherence in Spontaneous textAmsterdam: J Benjamins.

Sanford,  A J & Garrod,  S C (1994)  Selective mechanisms in text understanding.  In  M Gernsbacher (ed) Handbook of Psycholinguistics.  New York:  Wiley.

Barton,  S  B  and Sanford,  A J  (1993).  A case-study of anomaly detection:  Shallow semantic processing and cohesion establishment.  Memory and Cognition,  21, 477-487.

Sanford, A J (1990).  On the nature of text-driven inference.  In:  Comprehension processes in Reading, Balota, D A, Flores d'Arcais, G B, Rayner, K (eds),   Hillsdale, New Jersey:  Erlbaum.  (515-533)

Sanford, A J (1989).  Component processes of reference resolution. In: N E Sharkey (ed), Advances in cognitive science, 2 , New York:  Ablex.

Garrod, S C and Sanford, A J (1988).  Discourse models as interfaces between language and the spatial world.  Journal of Semantics, 6, 147 - 160.

Sanford A J (1985b).  Aspects of pronoun interpretation:  Evaluation of search formulations of inference.  In G Rickheit and H Strohner (eds), Advances in psychology, 29:  Inferences in Text Processing , Amsterdam:  North Holland.

Sanford, A J (1985c).  What makes reading easy?  In H Martin and A K Pugh (eds), Reading in a foreign language.  Munchen: Goethe Institute.

Sanford, A J & Garrod, S C (1983).  Topic dependent effects in language processing, in:  G B Flores d'Arcais and R Jarvella (Eds), The process of language comprehension, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Sanford, A J & Garrod, S C (1983).  Towards a psychological model of written discourse comprehension.  In J F Le Ny & W Kintsch (Eds), Advances in Psychology, 9:  Language and Comprehension , Amsterdam:  North Holland.

Sanford, A J  & Garrod, S C (1982a).  Towards a processing account of reference.  In Flammer, & W Kintsch (Eds), Advances in Psychology:  Text Processing. Amsterdam:  North Holland.

Sanford, A J  & Garrod, S C (1981).  Understanding Written Language: Explorations of Comprehension Beyond the Sentence.  Chichester:John Wiley & Sons.

Sanford, A J, Garrod, S C and Boyle, J M (1977).  An independence of mechanism in the origins of reading and classification-related semantic distance effects.  Memory and Cognition, 5, 214 - 220.

Garrod, S C and Sanford, A J (1977).  Interpreting anaphoric relations:  The integration of semantic information while reading. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behaviour, 16, 77 - 90.

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                             Depth of Processing

Collaborators:  Patrick Sturt, Eugene Dawydiak, Jason Bohan, Alison Newlands (U. Strathclyde),                             Andrew Stewart (Unilever Research).
 

This new project is concerned with variations in the specificity and detail of the mental representation of discourse as a function of linguistic and extralinguistic factors.  Techniques used include the detection of semantic anomalies, and an adaptation of change blindness from perception research.

Sturt, P., Sanford, A. J., Stewart, A. & Dawydiak, E. (in press).  Linguistic focus and Good-Enough representations: an application of the change-detection paradigm.  Psychonomic Bulletin and Review.

Sanford, A. J.  & Sturt, P.  (2002).  Depth of processing in language comprehension:  not noticing the evidence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6 (9), 382-386.

Sanford, A. J. (2002).  Context, attention, and depth of processing during interpretation.  Mind and Language, 17, 188-206.

Sanford, A.J., Clegg, M., & Majid, A. (1998) The influence of Character Type on Processing Background Information in Narrative Discourse. Memory and Cognition, 26, 1323-1329.

Sanford,  A. J.,  Barton,  S B,  Moxey,  L M,  & Paterson, K B (1995)  Cohesion-processes,  coherence,  and anomaly detection.  In C Habel and G Rickheit (eds)  Focus and Cohesion in discourse.,  Berlin: de Gruyter.

Sanford,  A. J. & Garrod,  S. C. (1994)  Selective mechanisms in text understanding.  In  M Gernsbacher (ed) Handbook of Psycholinguistics.  New York:  Wiley.

Barton,  S.  B.  & Sanford,  A. J.  (1993).  A case-study of anomaly detection:  Shallow semantic processing and cohesion establishment.  Memory and Cognition,  21, 477-487.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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                          Perception and Language

Collaborators:  Frank Pollick,  Helena Paterson

Demeanour and emotion may both be inferred from perceptual displays of human, biological, and other forms of movement.  This research is concerned with the mapping of display features onto cognition and ensuing descriptions.
 

Pollick, F. E., Paterson, H.M., Bruderlin, A., & Sanford, A. J. (2001).  Perceiving affect from arm movement. Cognition, 82,  B51-B61.

Paterson, H.,  Pollick, F. E., & Sanford, A. J. (2001).  The role of velocity in affect discrimination.  Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Univeristy of Edinburgh, August 2001, pp 756-761.  Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Paterson. H.,  Pollick, F E,  Calder, A J, & Sanford, A J (1999).  The perception of affect from point-light displays of simple arm movements.  Perception, 28, 53.  [ABSTRACT].
 
 

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                            Tony's Research History

I have a background in Human Performance and Cognitive Psychology, and did my PhD at the then Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge, under the supervision of Donald Broadbent.  I acquired an interest in process models through my PhD which was on the relationship of  simple reaction time, perceptual simultaneity, and auditory intensity.  I was later a postdoc at the University of Dundee, where I worked on age differences in the use of probabilistic information. Also I worked on auditory evoked potentials, and semantic memory (categorization).  On my appointment to Glasgow in 1974, I applied my interests in semantic memory to Understanding Language, and have specialized in that area since.

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Reaction Time, Simultaneity, Vision

Sanford, A J (1971a).  A periodic basis for perception and action.  In W P Colquhoun (Ed),  Biological Rhythms and Human Performance , London:  Academic Press.

Sanford, A J (1970).  Rating the speed of a simple reaction. Psychonomic Science, 21, 333 - 334.

Sanford, A J (1971b).  Effects of changes in the intensity of white noise on simultaneity judgements and simple reaction time.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23, 296 - 303.

Wade, N J and Sanford, A J (1971). Visual Contour Masking. Nature, 23 , 124 - 125.

Sanford, A J (1972b).  Criterion Effects in Simple Reaction Time:  Results with stimulus intensity and duration manipulations.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 95, 370 - 374.

Sanford, A J (1972c).  Loudness and Simple Reaction Time. Sound, 6, 92 - 96.

Sanford, A J (1974).  Attention bias and the relation of perceptual lag to simple reaction time.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102,433 - 466.
 
 

Adult ageing and using environmental statistics

Sanford, A J and Maule,  A J (1971).  Age and the distribution of observing responses.  Psychonomic Science, 23, 419 - 420.

Sanford, A J, Griew, S, and O'Donnell, L (1972).  Age effects in simple prediction behaviour. Journal of Gerontology, 27, 259 - 264.

Sanford, A J and Ball, E (1972).  Age effects in simple prediction of a repeating binary event pattern.  Gerontologia, 18, 193 - 199.

Sanford, A J (1972).  Compensatory strategies in the performance of old subjects.  In:  Elderly People Living in Europe.  Report of Centre Internationale de Gerontologie Sociale, Paris.

Sanford, A J and Maule, A J (1973).  Age related differences in searching for hidden targets.  Gerontologia, 28, 81 - 88.

Sanford, A J and Maule, A J (1973a).  The concept of "general" experience:  Age and strategies for guessing future events. Journal of Gerontology, 28, 81 -88.

Sanford, A J and Maule, A J (1973b). The allocation of attention in multisource monitoring behaviour:  Adult age differences. Perception, 2, 91 - 100.

Sanford, A J (1975).   Aspects of Decision-Making and Information Processing in Old Age.  Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Gerontology, Jerusalem, Israel, June 1975.

Sanford, A J, Jack E and Maule, A J (1977).  An age-related attentuation of choice in a modified guessing task.  Gerontology, 23, 205 - 210

Sanford, A J (1978).  The elderly and the control of simple behaviour by probablistic information.  Gerontology, 24, 386 - 397.

Maule, A J and Sanford, A J (1980).  Adult age differences in multisource selection behaviour with partially predictable signals.  British Journal of Psychology, 71.
 

Contingent Negative Variation

Loveless, N E and Sanford,  A J (1973).  The CNV baseline:  considerations of the internal consistency of data.  EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology Supplement.

Loveless, N E and Sanford, A J (1974a).  Contingent negative variation and reaction time as indices of age-related differences in preparatory set. Journal of Gerontology, 29, 52 - 63.

Loveless, N E and Sanford, A J (1974b).  Slow potential correlates of preparatory set.  Biological Psychology, 1, 303 - 314.

Loveless, N E and Sanford, A J (1975).  The impact of warning signal negative variation.  Biological Psychology, 2, 217 - 266.
 
 
 

Semantic and episodic memory

Sanford, A J and Seymour, P H K (1974b).  Semantic distance effects in naming superordinates.  Memory and Cognition, 2, 714 - 720.

Sanford,  A J and Seymour, P H K (1974a).  The influence of response compatibility on a semantic classification task.  Acta Psychologica, 38, 405 - 412.

Seymour, P H K and Sanford, A J (1975).  Interaction of concurrent generative and expressive activity in the production of typewritten lists.  Acta Psychologica, 39, 141 - 152.

Sanford, A J, Garrod, S C and Boyle, J M (1977).  An independence of mechanism in the origins of reading and classification-related semantic distance effects.  Memory and Cognition, 5, 214 - 220.

Hamilton, J M E and Sanford, A J (1978).  The symbolic distance effect in alphabetic order judgements:  A subjective report and reaction time analysis.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 30, 33 - 43.
 

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                                                                               CURRICULUM VITAE

Anthony John Sanford

 

Title:                      Professor of Psychology

Address:                Dept of Psychology                   

                                University of Glasgow

                                Glasgow G12 8QF

 

Tel : 0141  330  4058  (direct)

Fax:  0141  339  8889

email : tony@psy.gla.ac.uk

 

Avocations:  Hill-walking and scrambling (Munroist, Corbett Compleater); Industrial Archaeology; Music; Cooking

 

Degrees and Qualifications

 

·         BSc (1st class honours), Psychology, University of Leeds, 1966.

·         Ph. D.   Psychology  (Cantab), 1970

·         BPS Chartered Psychologist, 1990

·         Fellow British Psychological Society, 1993 

 

 

Principal appointments

 

1982 - present       Professor of Psychology, University of Glasgow

1989 - 1999             Principal Investigator, Human Communication Research Center, Glasgow and Edinburgh (half time post).

1980 - 1982             Reader in Psychology, University of Glasgow.

1974 - 1980             Senior Lecturer in Psychology, University of  Glasgow.

1971 - 1974             Lecturer in Psychology, University of Dundee.

1969 - 1971             Social Science Research Council Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Department of Psychology, University of Dundee.

1966 - 1969             Medical Research Council Scholar, APU and Pembroke College Cambridge.

 

 

Other relevant research and academic Offices

 

1999- 2001              Research Consultant, Unilever Research,Laboratories, Port Sunlight, Wirral.

1999                         Visiting Researcher, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

1999                        Visiting Researcher, Center for Cognitive and Neuroscience, University of Groningen, Netherlands.

1998                 Invited Visiting Researcher, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

1995                        Visiting Researcher, Center for Cognitive and Neuroscience, University of Groningen, Netherlands.

1993 (4 mo)            Invited Visiting Research fellow, Zentrum für Interdisziplinäre Forschung, University of Bielefeld, Germany.

1989 - 1999       Principal Investigator, ESRC Human Communication Research Centre,                                                      Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh (Half-time post). 

Convener of Discourse Working Group; Convener of Semantics working Group.

1988 - 1989             Full-time Researcher supported by an ESRC Personal grant.      

1986  (3 mo)           Visiting Research Consultant, Computing Research Laboratory, NMSU, Las Cruces, New Mexico.

1984 - 1986             Assistant Director to the Information Technology Programme, University of Glasgow.

1983                        Gifford Lecturer in Natural Theology, University of Glasgow

 

 

External examiner

 

1981-1984 U Newcastle (BA/BSc),  U Durham (BA/BSc),  U Manchester (BA/BSc),  U Edinburgh (MA/BSc),  U Dundee (MA/BSc),  U Sunderland (BA/BSc),  U Plymouth (MSc in Intelligent Systems), U Derby (BA/BSc), (2001-2004)U Edinburgh (MSc Psycholinguistics).

 

PhDs examined as external at:  Stockholm, Groningen (Netherlands), Glasgow, Edinburgh, Stirling, Dundee, Durham, Teesside, Leeds,  Manchester,  Sheffield,  Cambridge,  UCL,  Surrey,  Sussex,  Exeter, Plymouth.

 

Editorial Boards

Previous:

Quarterly Journal Experimental Psychology

Journal of Forensic Linguistics

Journal of Semantics

European Journal of Cognitive Psychology

 

Current:

Connection Science

 

Learned  Societies

 

Fellow, British Psychological Society

Member, Experimental Psychology Society

Member, Cognitive Science Society

Member, Psychonomic Society

Member, British Association for the Advancement of Science

Member, Society for Text and Discourse

Member, American Psychology Society

 

 

ADMINISTRATION

 

Chief Roles:

1983 -  1986                            Head of Department of Psychology, University of Glasgow

1983 -                                      Member of Senate (and College of Senate)

1884 -  1987                            Deputy Director of IT MSc program,  University of Glasgow.

1992 -                                      Staff development appraiser

1991  - 1993                        Academic Promotions Committee member

1994 -  1998                            Departmental quality assurance officer for teaching.

1995 -  2000                            Department of Psychology Management group (founded 1995)

1996 -  1998                            Teaching Quality Assessor for Scottish Higher Education Funding Council, with team  leader status.

1998-                                       Member Departmental Teaching Committee

1999-                                       Responsible person for Departmental Quality Assurance

1998 -                                      Member of the Gifford lectureship committee.

2002                                            Member Department Research Committee

2003                                            Expert panel member, EEC Marie Curie awards in Social Sciences.

2004                                            Committee member, BPS Cognitive Section

2004-                           Member BPS Cognitive Section paper prize panel

 

 

I have been external advisor to a number of departments.  For appointments at: U Memphis, U Utah,

TEACHING

 

I have taught psychology at all undergraduate and postgraduate levels, including general introductory courses on human psychology.  Also computational approaches to language processing for the MSc in Information Technology.  Currently my teaching interests are:

 

·         Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Science in general. 

·         Psycholinguistics, especially discourse comprehension and semantics  (Honours specialisations)

·         Human Understanding and its limitations.

·         Social Cognition, especially language effects in the collection of questionnaire data and attribution, risk-perception; everyday explanation. (level 4)

·         Methodology, especially design issues.  (Postgraduate)

·         Psycholinguistics (Course Organiser). (Postgraduate).

 

PhD supervisions: 22. 

RESEARCH INTERESTS

Research History:

 

My research history began with contributions to our understanding of simple signal detection of clearly audible signals (1968-72), and I was able to show that intensity effects on simple reaction time were not mediated by the time it takes some central locus to detect the presence of a signal.  I later carried out extensive work on Cognitive changes with adult ageing, especially on changes in attention, observing patterns, and implicit learning (70-80; and occasionally since).  I was able to show that implicit learning of the probabilistic structure of environments was not adversely affected by ageing, but making use of this information was. Other work on the psychological significance of aspects of evoked potentials, especially the Contingent Negative variation (72-75), carried out with Norman Loveless in Dundee, fractionated the CNV into the e-wave and a component of the orienting response to the warning signal, and was among the first work to do so.  My work on aspects of semantic memory processing (72-80) provided the foundation for my later studies of the on-line processing of language, and also demonstrated an independence of semantic distance in categorisation judgements and in priming tasks. 

Since 1980 my primary interest has been in The Nature of Human Understanding, how it works, and what its limits are.  A reflection of this interest is the general book The Mind of Man: Models of Human Understanding   (Sanford, 1987), which was written for the popular science market, and an edited volume The Nature and Limits of Human Understanding (Sanford (Ed.), 2003).  I am involved in several projects to exploit work on human understanding.  The main empirical thrust of my work on understanding has been concerned with the development of a detailed Process model of comprehension, The Scenario Mapping and Focus Model, which saw its first description in my book Understanding Written Language (Sanford & Garrod, 1981).

The Scenario Mapping and Focus Theory is still driving a thorough research program, is a widely-recognised account of discourse processing (especially in the USA and Europe), and is still influential in current research on the topic, receiving a steady flow of citations.  It differs from other theories, such as that of Kintsch in the role it ascribes to the early utilisation of knowledge. In much more recent work, I have concentrated on how the scenario-mapping aspect of the model explains a range of phenomena, including the interpretation of prepositions (a knotty problem), the mechanisms of plural anaphora, and especially on the nature of incremental interpretation and on-line processing.   This work brings the model into sharp contrast with both the mental models theory of Johnson-Laird and the minimalist account of inference-making (McKoon and Ratcliff), and has led to some interesting theoretical issues regarding the nature of inference and the processes which support inference-making.  These issues are ongoing research concerns (e.g., Sanford & Garrod, 1998; Sanford & Sturt, 2002).

I have also carried out Forensic Linguistic work evaluating the claims that the attribution of authorship (including confessions and suicide notes) can be established by features of the texts.  The evaluation was largely negative.

 

Current Research Foci

 

1.        The nature and limits of human understanding.  The general problem, and theoretical and practical limitations on understanding.  I am currently writing a book on what

 we know about this problem in the light psychological research.

2.        How we understand written language (from a psychological and cognitive science perspective).  Development of a knowledge-driven process model. (ESRC, AHRB funded). In particular, I have been developing a theory of how processing load and focus influences semantic processing, and more recently, the role of attention-capture (consciousness) in communication. These features are being incorporated into a new andfunique theory of discourse processing.

3.        Language as a problem in controlling the flow of attention, and depth of processing. (ESRC and EPSRC funded).  This project has led to new findings concerning consciousness and attention, and is leading to a new avenue using EEG methods.

4.        The relation of processing to rhetoric and style to processing, including the application of process models to literary texts. (AHRB funded, joint with C.Emmott of English Language ). This is closely related to flow-of-attention problems, but approaches from the perspective of effective literary writing.

5.        The interdisciplinary study of quantifiers and terms of certainty and uncertainty, including practical applications in risk, food labelling, and social communication (a continuing project with colleagues Linda Moxey and Eugene Dawydiak).

 

 

Scientific Publications

 

Books

 

 

A J Sanford and S C Garrod, (1981).  Understanding Written Language: Explorations of Comprehension Beyond the Sentence.  Chichester:John Wiley & Sons.

 

A J Sanford (1983).  Models, Mind and Man:  Gifford Lectures in Natural Theology.  Glasgow:  Pressgang.

 

A J Sanford (1985).  Cognition and Cognitive Psychology.  London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.  (As from 1986, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates).  (Also as Basic Books, from 1986, in USA).

 

A J Sanford (1987).  The Mind of Man:  Models of Human Understanding.  Brighton:  The Harvester Press. 

Also:      (1987) by Yale University Press, in the USA;

                (1990) as La Mente de Hombre, Madrid: Alanza            Universidad, in Spain.

(1993) as La Mente dell' Uomo, Bologna: Universale paperbacks Il Mulino, in Italy.

 

L M Moxey and A J Sanford  (1993) Communicating Quantities:  A Psychological Perspective: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 

A J Sanford (Ed). (2003) The Nature and Limits of Human Understanding.  2001 Gifford lectures in Natural Theology, University of Glasgow.  Edinburgh: T&T Clark.

 

A J Stewart & A J Sanford (in preparation).  The Cognitive Consumer.

 

C. Emmott & A J Sanford (in preparation).  How you say it.

 

 

Refereed Journal Articles

 

Sanford, A J (1970).  Rating the speed of a simple reaction. Psychonomic Science, 21, 333 - 334.

 

Sanford, A J (1971).  Effects of changes in the intensity of white noise on simultaneity judgements and simple reaction time.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23, 296 - 303.

 

Sanford, A J and Maule,  A J (1971).  Age and the distribution of observing responses.  Psychonomic Science, 23, 419 - 420.

 

Wade, N J and Sanford, A J (1971). Visual Contour Masking. Nature, 23, 124 - 125.

 

Sanford, A J (1972).  Criterion Effects in Simple Reaction Time:  Results with stimulus intensity and duration manipulations.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 95, 370 - 374.

 

Sanford, A J (1972).  Loudness and Simple Reaction Time.  Sound, 6, 92 - 96.

 

Sanford, A J, Griew, S, and O'Donnell, L (1972).  Age effects in simple prediction behaviour. Journal of Gerontology, 27, 259 - 264.

 

Sanford, A J and Ball, E (1972).  Age effects in simple prediction of a repeating binary event pattern.  Gerontologia, 18, 193 - 199.

 

Sanford, A J and Maule, A J (1973).  Age related differences in searching for hidden targets.  Gerontologia, 28, 81 - 88.

 

Sanford, A J and Maule, A J (1973).  The concept of "general" experience:  Age and strategies for guessing future events.  Journal of Gerontology, 28, 81 -88.

 

Sanford, A J and Maule, A J (1973). The allocation of attention in multisource monitoring behaviour:  Adult age differences. Perception, 2, 91 - 100.

 

Loveless, N E and Sanford, A J (1973).  The CNV baseline:  considerations of the internal consistency of data.  EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology Supplement.

 

Sanford, A J (1974).  Attention bias and the relation of perceptual lag to simple reaction time.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102,433 - 466.

 

Sanford,  A J and Seymour, P H K (1974).  The influence of response compatibility on a semantic classification task.  Acta Psychologica, 38, 405 - 412.

 

Sanford, A J and Seymour, P H K (1974).  Semantic distance effects in naming superordinates.  Memory and Cognition, 2, 714 - 720.

 

Loveless, N E and Sanford, A J (1974).  Contingent negative variation and reaction time as indices of age-related differences in preparatory set.  Journal of Gerontology, 29, 52 - 63.

 

Loveless, N E and Sanford, A J (1974).  Slow potential correlates of preparatory set.  Biological Psychology, 1, 303 - 314.

 

Loveless, N E and Sanford, A J (1975).  The impact of warning signal on contingent negative variation.  Biological Psychology, 2, 217 - 266.

 

Seymour, P H K and Sanford, A J (1975).  Interaction of concurrent generative and expressive activity in the production of typewritten lists.  Acta Psychologica, 39, 141 - 152.

 

Sanford, A J, Jack E and Maule, A J (1977).  An age-related attentuation of choice in a modified guessing task.  Gerontology, 23, 205 - 210.

 

Sanford, A J, Garrod, S C and Boyle, J M (1977).  An independence of mechanism in the origins of reading and classification-related semantic distance effects.  Memory and Cognition, 5, 214 - 220.

 

Garrod, S C and Sanford, A J (1977).  Interpreting anaphoric relations:  The integration of semantic information while reading.  Journal of verbal learning and verbal behaviour, 16, 77 - 90.

 

Sanford, A J (1978).  The elderly and the control of simple behaviour by probablistic information.  Gerontology, 24, 386 - 397.

 

Hamilton, J M E and Sanford, A J (1978).  The symbolic distance effect in alphabetic order judgements:  A subjective report and reaction time analysis.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 30, 33 - 43.

 

Maule, A J and Sanford, A J (1980).  Adult age differences in multisource selection behaviour with partially predictable signals.  British Journal of Psychology, 71.

 

Sanford, A J and Garrod, S C (1980).  Memory in text comprehension:  the problem of reference.  In  R S Nickerson (ed), Attention and Performancey, 8, Hillsdale, N J;  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

 

Garrod, S C and Sanford, A J (1982).  The mental interpretation of discourse in a focused memory system:  implications for the interpretation of anaphoric noun-phrases. Journal of Semantics, 1,   21 - 41.

 

Garrod,  S C  and Sanford,  A J (1892),  Bridging inferences and the extended domain of reference.  In J Long and A Baddeley (eds) Attention and Performance 9,  311 - 346.

 

Anderson, Anne, Garrod, S C and Sanford, A J (1983).  The accessibility of pronominal antecedents as a function of episode shifts in narrative texts.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 35A, 427 - 440.

 

Sanford, A J, Garrod, S C, Lucas, A and Henderson, R (1984), Pronouns without antecedents?  Journal of Semantics, 2, 303 - 318.

 

Garrod, S C and Sanford, A J (1985).  On the real-time character of interpretation during reading.  Language and Cognitive Processes, 1,  43 - 59.

 

Moxey, L M & Sanford, A J (1987).  Quantifiers and Focus, Journal of Semantics, 5, 189 - 206.

 

Garrod, S C and Sanford, A J (1988).  Thematic Subjecthood and cognitive constraints on discourse structure.  Journal of Pragmatics, 12, 357- 372.

 

Sanford, A J, Moar, K and Garrod, S C (1988).  Proper names and the control of focus, Language and Speech, 31, 43 - 56.

 

Garrod, S C and Sanford, A J (1988).  Discourse models as interfaces between language and the spatial world.  Journal of Semantics, 6,147 - 160.

 

Sanford, A J and Garrod, S C (1989).   What, when and how?  Questions of immediacy in anaphoric reference resolution.  Language and Cognitive Processes, 4,  235 - 262.

 

Sanford, A J and Lockhart, F (1990).  Description types and method of conjoining as factors influencing plural anaphora: A continuation study of focus, Journal of Semantics, 7, 365-378.

 

Barton, S B and Sanford, A J (1990).  The control of attributional patterns by the focusing properties of quantifying expressions.  Journal of Semantics, 7, 81 - 92.

 

Moxey, L M & Sanford,  A J (1993).  Prior expectation and the interpretation of natural language quantifiers.  European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 5, 73-91.

 

Barton, S B & Sanford,  A J  (1993).  A case-study of anomaly detection:  Shallow semantic processing and cohesion establishment.  Memory and Cognition,  21, 477-487.

 

Sanford, A J, Moxey, L M, & Paterson, K B  (1994),  Psychological studies of quantifiers,  Journal of Semantics,  11,  153 - 171.

 

Moxey, L.M.  &  Sanford, A. J. (1994)  Special Edition of Journal of Semantics,  11 (3 and 4) on Psychology and Semantics.

 

Sanford, A J., Aked, L M., Moxey, L M., & Mullin, J. (1994)  A critical examination of assumptions underlying the Cusum technique of forensic linguistics.  Forensic Linguistics,  1,  151-168.

 

Sanford, A. J., Moxey, L. M. & Paterson, K. B. (1996) Attentional focussing with quantifiers in production and comprehension.  Memory and Cognition, 24,  144-155.

 

Traxler, M.,  Sanford, A. J.,  Aked, L.M.,  and Moxey,  L. M. (1997)  Processing causals and diagnostics in discourse.  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Language, Memory and Cognition, 23, 87-101.

 

Sanford, A.J., Clegg, M., & Majid, A. (1998) The influence of Character Type on Processing Background Information in Narrative Discourse. Memory and Cognition, 26, 1323-1329.

 

Paterson, K.B., Sanford, A.J., Moxey, L.M., & Dawydiak, E. (1998) Quantifier Polarity and Referential Focus during reading Journal of Memory and Language, 39, 290-306.

 

Sanford, A.J. & Garrod, S.C. (1998). The role of scenario mapping in text comprehension, Discourse Processes,  26, 159 - 190.

 

Stewart, A., Pickering, M.J., & Sanford, A.J. (2000) The time-course of the influence of implicit causality information: Focus versus Integration accounts. Journal of Memory and Language,  42, 423-443.

 

Moxey, L M & Sanford, A J (2000) Communicating Quantities:  A review of psycholinguistic evidence of the control of perspective by quantifying expressions.   Applied Cognitive Psychology, 14, 237-255.

 

Moxey. LM,, Sanford, A. J., & Dawydiak, E.J. (2001). The role of denial in negative quantifier focus.  Journal of Memory and Language, 44, 427-442.

 

Pollick, F., Paterson, H., Bruderlin, A., &  Sanford, A J (2001)  Perceiving affect from arm movement.  Cognition, 82,  B51-B61.

 

Sanford, A J, Williams C, & Fay, N (2001).   When being included is being excluded:  A note on complement set focus and the inclusion relation. Memory & Cognition, 29 (8), 1096-1101.

 

Sanford, A. J. (2002) Context, Attention and Depth of processing during interpretation.   Mind & Language, 17, 188-206.

 

Sanford. A J, Fay. N., Stewart, A J, & Moxey L M  (2002).  Perspective in statements of quantity, with implications for consumer psychology. Psychological Science, 13, 130-134.

 

Sanford, A. J. & Sturt, P. (2002).  Depth of processing in language comprehension:  not noticing the evidence.  Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 382-386.

 

Sanford, A J & Moxey, L M (2003). New perspectives on the expression of quantity.  Current directions in psychological sciences, 12, 240-243.

 

Emmott, C., Sanford, A. J., & Morrow, L. I. (2003). Towards a theory of reading in the age of cognitive science: Cross-disciplinary perspectives on narrative from stylistics and psychology. Belgian journal of English Language and Literatures, 1, 17-29.

 

Moxey, L. M., Sanford, A, J., Sturt, P., & Morrow, L. (2004).   Constraints on the Formation of Plural Reference Objects: The Influence of Role, Conjunction, and Type of Description.  Journal of Memory and Language, 51, 346-364.

 

Sturt, P., Sanford, A. J., Stewart, A. J. & Dawydiak, E. (in press).  Linguistic focus and good-enough representations: an application of the change-detection paradigm. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review.

 

Sanford, A. J. & Garrod, S. C, (in press). Memory-based processing and beyond. Discourse Processes.

 

Majid, A., Sanford, A. J., & Pickering, M. (in press).  Covariation and quantifier polarity: What determines causal attribution in vignettes?  Cognition

 

 

 

Chapters in books

 

Sanford, A J (1971).  A periodic basis for perception and action.  In W P Colquhoun (Ed),  Biological Rhythms and Human Performance, London:  Academic Press.

 

Garrod, S C & Sanford, A J (1978).  Anaphora:  A problem for text comprehension.  In R N Campbell & P T Smith (Eds), Recent Advances in the Psychology of Language, London:  Plenum Press.

 

Sanford, A J & Garrod, S C (1979).  Implicit information in text comprehension.  In R Drachman (Ed). Salzburg Studies in Linguistics, iv.

 

Sanford, A J  & Garrod, S C (1982).  Towards a processing account of reference.  In Flammer, & W Kintsch (Eds), Advances in Psychology:  Text Processing, Amsterdam:  North Holland.

 

Sanford, A J & Garrod, S C (1983).  Topic dependent effects in language processing, in:  G B Flores d'Arcais and R Jarvella (Eds), The process of language comprehension, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

 

Sanford, A J & Garrod, S C (1983).  Towards a psychological model of written discourse comprehension.  In J F Le Ny & W Kintsch (Eds), Advances in Psychology, 9:  Language and Comprehension, Amsterdam:  North Holland.

 

Sanford A J (1985).  Aspects of pronoun interpretation:  Evaluation of search formulations of inference.  In G Rickheit and H Strohner (eds), Advances in psychology, 29:  Inferences in Text Processing, Amsterdam:  North Holland.

 

Sanford, A J (1985).  What makes reading easy?  In H Martin and A K Pugh (eds), Reading in a foreign language.  Munchen: Goethe Institute.

 

Sanford, A J (1989).  Component processes of reference resolution,  in N E Sharkey (ed), Advances in cognitive science, 2, New York:  Ablex.

 

Garrod, S C & Sanford, A J (1990).  Referential processes in reading: focusing on roles and individuals, in:  Comprehension Processes in Reading, Flores d'Arcais, G B, Rayner, K, Balota, D (eds), Hillsdale, New Jersey:  Erlbaum.  (515-533). 

 

Sanford, A J (1990).  On the nature of text-driven inference,  in:  Comprehension processes in Reading, Balota, D A, Flores d'Arcais, G B, Rayner, K (eds),   Hillsdale, New Jersey:  Erlbaum.  (515-533)

 

Moxey, L M, Sanford, A J & Barton, S B (1990).  The control of attentional focus by quantifiers.  In:  K J Gilhooly, M Keane, R H Logie,and G Erdos, Lines of Thinking, Vol 1, Chichester:  Wiley.

 

Moxey, L M  &  Sanford, A J (1992).  Context effects and the communicative functions of quantifiers, in:  N. Schwarz and  S.  Sudman (eds) Context Effects in Social and Psychological Research:  Implications for their use in Attitude Research.  New York:  Springer-Verlag (279-296)

 

Sanford,  A J & Garrod,  S C (1994)  Selective mechanisms in text understanding.  In  M Gernsbacher (ed)  Handbook of Psycholinguistics.  New York:  Wiley.

 

Garrod,  S C  & Sanford,  A J  (1994)  Resolving sentences in a discourse context:  how discourse representation affects language understanding.  In M Gernsbacher (ed)  Handbook of Psycholinguistics.  New York:  Wiley.

 

Sanford,  A   J,  Barton,  S B,  Moxey,  L M,  & Paterson, K B (1995)  Cohesion-processes,  coherence,  and anomaly detection.  In C Habel and G Rickheit (eds)  Focus and Cohesion in discourse.,  Berlin: de Gruyter.

 

Sanford,  A  J  &  Moxey,  L  M (1995)  Notes on plural reference and the scenario-mapping principle in comprehension.  In C Habel and G Rickheit (eds)  Focus and cohesion in discourse.  Berlin:  de Gruyter.

 

Sanford, A. J. & Moxey, L. M. (1995). Aspects of coherence in written communication:  a psychological perspective.  In M A Gernsbacher and T Givon (eds)  Coherence in Spontaneous text.  Amsterdam: J Benjamins.

 

Moxey, L. M.  & Sanford, A. J. (1997).  Choosing the right quantifier:  Usage in the context of communication.   In T Givon (ed) Conversation:  Cultural, Cognitive,  and Communicative Perspectives,  207 - 231;  Amsterdam:  J  Benjamins.

 

Sanford, A. J. (1999). Word meaning in discourse processing:  A tutorial review.  In S.C. Garrod and M.J. Pickering (Eds), Language Processing,  Psychology Press.

 

Garrod, S., & Sanford, A. J (1999) Incrementality in discourse understanding.  In H van Oostendorp & S R Goldman (Eds), The construction of mental representations during reading.  Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

 

Aked, J P,  Canter, D.,  Sanford,  A J,  &  Smith,  N.  (1999).  Approaches to the scientific attribution of authorship. In D Canter & L Alison (Eds.)  Profiling in policy and practice.  Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

 

Sanford, A J  &  Moxey, L M (1999)   What are mental models made of? in G Rickheit and C Habel (Eds)  Mental Models in Discourse Processing and Reasoning.  North Holland: Elsevier.

 

Moxey, L M & Sanford, A J  (2000).  Focus effects with negative quantifiers.  In M Crocker, M Pickering, and C Clifton (eds) Architectures and Mechanisms of Language Processing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

Sanford, A J & Moxey, L M  (2000) Risk Portrayal and Risk Appreciation as a problem in language use.  In: L Lundquist & R J Jarvella (Eds) Language, Text and Knowledge.,   Amsterdam: de Gruyter. Pp 285-305.

 

Sanford, A. J. & Moxey, L. M.  (2004)  Exploring quantifiers:  Pragmatics meets the psychology of comprehension. I. Noveck and D. Sperber (Eds.), Experimental Pragmatics.  London: Palgrave MacMillan.

 

Sanford, A. J., Sturt, P., Moxey, L. M., Morrow, L., & Emmott, C. (2004).  Production and comprehension measures in assessing plural object formation.  In M. Carreiras and C, Clifton, (Eds.), The on-line study of sentence comprehension: Eye-tracking, ERP, and beyond.  Brighton: Psychology Press.

 

Garrod, S. C. & Sanford, A. J. ( in press).  Language in Action. Open University Press.

 

Sanford, A. J. (in press).  Language and Thinking.  In M. Hewstone & H. Fincham (Eds).  An introduction to contemporary psychology.  Oxford: Blackwell’s.

 

Sanford, A. J. & Moxey, L. M. (in press).    E. Gibson

 

Stewart, A. J & Sanford, A. J. (in press).  How do consumers interpret claims about the fat content in foods?  In Focus on dietary fats research.  London: Nova Science Publishers.

 

Koh, S., Sanford, A. J., Clifton, C., & Dawydiak, E.  (in Press). Good-enough representation in plural and singular pronominal reference: Modulating the Conjunction Cost. To appear in:  J. Gundel & N. Hedberg (Ed.), Reference.

 

 

 

 

Conference papers (published)

 

Sanford, A J (1972).  Compensatory strategies in the performance of old subjects.  In:  Elderly People Living in Europe.  Report of Centre Internationale de Gerontologie Sociale, Paris.

 

Sanford, A J (1975).   Aspects of Decision-Making and Information Processing in Old Age.  Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Gerontology, Jerusalem, Israel, June 1975.

 

Sanford, A J, Garrod, S C and Bell, E (1979).   Aspects of memory dynamics in text comprehension.  In M M Gruneberg, P E Morris & R N Sykes, Practical Aspects of Memory, London:  Academic Press.

 

Sanford, A J (1985). Pronoun reference resolution and the bonding-effect.  In G Hoppenbrouwers, P Seuren and A Weijters (eds). Meaning and the lexicon, Dordrecht:  Foris.

 

Sanford, A J and Garrod S C (1985).  The role of background knowledge in psychological accounts of text comprehension.  In J Allwood and E Hjelmquist (eds), Foregrounding Background, Lund:  Doxa.

 

Sanford, A J, and McGinley, M T (1990).  In search of a richer model of written language comprehension:  Three fragments of evidence, In O Dahl and K Fraurud (eds),   The Second Nordic Conference on Text Comprehension in Man and Machine, Stockholm:  Institute of Linguistics (121-135).

 

Sanford, A J, Moxey, L M (1990).  Language understanding and the cognitive ergonomics of style, in:  Computers and Writing, Williams, N, Holt, P (eds), New Jersey:  Norwood, 38-49),

 

Paterson, K. B.,  Moxey, L. M., & Sanford, A. J. (1996)  Pronominal reference to a quantified noun phrase. Procedings of DAARC96 conference, U Lancaster, July, 1996. 

 

Cooreman, A.  and Sanford, A. J. (1996)  Focus and syntactic subordination in discourse. Procedings of DAARC96 Conference, U Lancaster,  July, 1996.

 

Sanford, A. J. &  Moxey, L. M.  (1996) Towards a unified account of selective processing.  (abstract) International Journal of Psychology, 31,  111.

 

Duffy, F., & Sanford, A J (1997) Failure to suppress unwanted sense information as a function of adult ageing.  Proceedings of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society.

 

Moxey, L. M.  &  Sanford, A. J. (1998).  Complement Set reference and quantifiers. In M A Gernsbacher & S J Derry (Eds)  Proceedings of the 1998 meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Madison, Wisconsin, August 1- 3.

 

Sanford, A J,  Moxey, L M, and Dawydiak, E (1998) Connectives and anaphoric reference patterns to negative quantifiers.  In M A Gernsbacher & S J Derry (Eds)  Proceedings of the 20th annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Wisconsin-Madison. Mahwah, NJ:  Erlbaum.

 

Stewart, A J., Pickering, M J, & Sanford. A J (1998) The relationship between implicit causality and implicit consequentiality. In M A Gernsbacher & S J Derry (Eds)  Proceedings of the 20th annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Wisconsin-Madison. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum

 

Stewart, A J., Pickering, M J, & Sanford. A J (1998). Implicit Consequentiality. In M A Gernsbacher & S J Derry (Eds)  Proceedings of the 20th annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Wisconsin-Madison. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum

 

Paterson. H. E.,  Pollick, F E,  Calder, A J, & Sanford, A J (1999).  The perception of affect from point-light displays of simple arm movements.  Perception, 28, 53.  [ABSTRACT].

 

Paterson, H.E., Pollick, F.E., & Sanford, A.J. (2001).  The role of velocity in affect discrimination.  In Proceedings of the 23rd conference of the Cognitive Science Society, University of Edinburgh, August 2001, pp 756 –761.  Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

 

 

Other publications

 

Sanford, A J and Garrod, S C (1978).  Reading between the lines.  New Scientist, January 1978.

 

Sanford, A J (1990).  Anaphora, in: The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology, Eysenck, M W (ed), Oxford:  Blackwell, (16-18).

 

Sanford, A J (1990).  Inference, in: The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology, Eysenck, MW (ed), Oxford:  Blackwell, (186-192)

 

Sanford, A J (1990).  Language comprehension, in:  Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology, Eysenck M W (ed), Oxford:  Blackwell, (203-208).

 

Sanford,  A J and Garrod,  S C (1994)  Psychological Semantics.  In R E Asher and J M Y Simpson (eds)  The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics,  London:  Pergammon Press.

 

Sanford, A J  and Garrod,  S C (1994)  Default reasoning and logic. In R E Asher and J M Y Simpson (eds)  The encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics,  London:  Pergammon Press.

 

Garrod, S C and Sanford,  A J (1994)  Text Coherence.  In R E Asher and  J M Y  Simpson (eds)  The encyclopedia of Language and  Linguistics,  London:  Pergammon Press.

 

Garrod, S C and Sanford,  A J (1994)  Reference.  In R E Asher and J M Y Simpson (eds)  The encyclopedia of language and linguistics.  London:  Pergammon Press

 

Sanford, A. J. (2000). Psycholinguistics:  Semantics.  In A. E. Kazdin (Ed.), APA Encyclopaedia of Psychology,

 

Moxey, L M & Sanford, A J (2003). Communicating Quantitative Information.  In G. Rickheit, W. Deutsch, & T. Herrmann (eds)., Psycholinguistics: An international handbook.  Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter.

 

Sanford, A. J. (in press).  Coherence: A psycholinguistics approach.  In  The encyclopedia of language and linguistics(2nd edition).  London:  Pergammon Press

 

Sanford, A. J. (in press).  Psychological Semantics. The encyclopedia of language and linguistics (2nd edition).  London:  Pergammon Press

 

 

 

Unpublished and technical reports

(NL = available at National Lending Library)

 

A J Sanford and A J Maule (1972).  Age and prediction behaviour.  End of grant report to SSRC, project HR 165/1. (NL)

 

A J Sanford (1975).  Studies of the class membership relation.  End of grant report to SSRC, project HR 1833/1. (NL)

 

A J Sanford and A J Maule (1976).  Confidence, caution, and behavioural strategy in the elderly.  End of project report to SSRC, project HR 2456/1.  (NL)

 

A J Sanford and S C Garrod (1979).  Topic and reference in text understanding.  End of grant report to SSRC, project HR 4814/1.  (NL)

 

A J Sanford, S C Garrod and R Henderson (1984). An investigation into real-time characteristics of discourse comprehension and associated phenomena.  End of grant report to SERC, project number GR/B/81151. (NL)

 

S C Garrod and A J Sanford (1985).  A functional analysis of spatial reference in spontaneous dialogue.  End of grant report to ESRC, project number C00230010.  (NL)

 

A J Sanford and S C Garrod (1985). The role of characters and perspective in discourse comprehension.  End of grant report to ESRC on project C0023009.  (NL)

 

S C Garrod, A Anderson and A J Sanford (1983). Semantic negotiation and the dynamics of conversational meaning.  Unpublished technical report, 86 pages.

 

A J Sanford (1990). Aspects of the psycholinguistic theory of understanding written discourse.  End of grant report to ESRC, project number R000231492. (NL)

 

Sanford, A J, Moxey, L M (1991).  Notes on plural reference and the scenario-mapping principle in comprehension, (Edinburgh: HCRC Publications).

 

S Garrod  and A J Sanford  (1995)  Incrementality in Discourse Understanding.   In D Millward and P Sturt (eds)  Incremental Interpretation:  Edinburgh Working Papers in Cognitive Science, 11,  99-122.

 

A Cooreman and A J Sanford (1996) Focus and Syntactic Subordination in Discourse.  Research Paper RP-79, Human Communication Research Center, University of Edinburgh.

 

A J Sanford  and M Clegg (1996)  Main character as a controller of inference in discourse processing.  End of Grant report on ESRC project.  (NL).

 

A J Sanford, A. J. Stewart, & N Fay (2001). When the same fat content is communicated in different ways: the impact on perceived "healthiness".  Unilever Science and Technology Report, Consumer Memory and Learning report PS 01 0065. Confidential Unilever Report.

 

A J Sanford & P Sturt (2002).  Applying Change Blindness to Language Processing.  End of Grant report on ESRC project R000223622.  (NL)

 

A J Sanford, P Sturt, & L Moxey (2002).  A Psychological investigation of Plural ReferenceRresolution.  End of grant report on ESRC project R000223497.  (NL)


 

Grants Awarded

 

1970-72 A J Sanford, Age and prediction behaviour. SSRC, t HR 165/1 (2 RAS)

1971-75 A J Sanford & P H K Seymour Semantic Memory, SSRC, HR 1833/1 (2 RA’s)

1973-76 A J Sanford Confidence, caution, and behavioural strategy in the elderly SSRC, project HR 2456/1. (I Post-Doc)

1976-79 A J Sanford and S C Garrod Topic and reference in text understanding. SSRC, HR 4814/1. (1 RA)

1980-83 A J Sanford & S C Garrod and R Henderson (1984). An investigation into real-time characteristics of discourse comprehension and associated phenomena.SERC, GR/B/81151. (I RA)

1982-65 S C Garrod and A J Sanford.  A functional analysis of spatial reference in spontaneous dialogue.  ESRC, C00230010. (1 RA)

1982-84 A J Sanford and S C Garrod.  The role of characters and perspective in discourse comprehension. ESRC C0023009. (1 Post-Doc)

1989 A J Sanford. Personal support grant: Development of the psycholinguistic theory of understanding written discourse. ESRC, R000231492.  (Replacement lecturer).

1989-1999 A J Sanford with 11 others.  ESRC  Human Communication Research Center maingrant award.(AJS was the Glasgow applicant).

1992 – 94 A J Sanford & L M Moxey.  Investigation of the concept of discourse style.  Leverhulme Research grant.(1 Post-Doc)

1993 (4 mo).  Visiting Research Fellowship grant from ZiF, University of Bielefeld, Germany. (Replaced AJS salary)

1994-1995 A J Sanford & L M Moxey.  CUSUM in forensic linguistics.  Leverhulme.  Supplementary grant (I Post Doc)

1994 British Council Visiting Grant (Netherlands, Groningen).

1994 A J Sanford Psycholinguistic investigations of quantifiers. British Academy. ( 1 RA)

1994-95 A J Sanford and M Clegg  Characters and Inference in discourse comprehension. ESRC project (1 Post-doc)

1995 Wellcome travel grant, Eugene Oregon.

1998-  Periodic visiting research support, University of Derby

1999 British Council Visiting Grant (Groningen, Netherlands)

1999-2000 Consultancy with Unilever Research Laboratories.

2000 - 2001 Unilever research support “ Consumer interpretation of quantity information”. £15K (1 RA).

2001 ZiF Funding for workshop on language comprehension and human understanding, ZiF, Bielefeld, Germany (10K).

2001-2002  A J Sanford, P Sturt, and L M Moxey ESRC grant R000223497  A psychological investigation of plural reference resolution. (1 Post-doc).

2001  Universities of Glasgow and Strathclyde Synergy fund.  Sanford, A. J., Newlands, A. J. S., Burton, A. M. &  Anderson, T.  Development of the effective understanding of probability in Social Sciences and other students. (Part–time RA support).

2001 – 2002  A J Sanford and P Sturt  ESRC grant R000223622  Applying Change Blindness to language processing. (1 post-doc) £39978

2002 – 2003  C Emmott and A J Sanford Literature, Narrative, and Cognitive Science: Interdisciplinary perspectives on the nature of reading.  AHRB grant, £42, 344 (1 post-doc).

2002-2004 A J Sanford, P Sturt & E Dawydiak. ESRC Grant R000239888 Variable semantic processing during reading.  £95, 600. (1 post-doc)

2003 (2 months)C Emmott and A J Sanford.  Literature, narrative, and cognitive science (LINCS).  The British Academy,  £4,150. (1 post-doc)

2004-2007  M Poesio (Essex), A J Sanford & P Sturt.  Anaphoric Reference Resolution and Underspecification (ARRAU)  EPSRC, £233, 241.   (2 post-docs, 1 in Glasgow).

2005-2008  C Emmott & A J Sanford. Stylistics, text analysis, and cognitive science (STACS), AHRB,  £144, 422. (1 post-doc)

 

 

 

 


 

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