30 Jan 2010 ............... Length about 200 words (2000 bytes).
(Document started on 30 Jan 2010.)
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Department of Psychology,
University of Glasgow.
The nine principles of good feedback are:
- Develops student self-assessment skills
- Facilitates peer and teacher dialogue
- Clarifies what good performance is
- Timely turnover
- Greater role of resubmission
- Delivers high quality information on learning progress
- Encourages positive motivational beliefs and self-esteem
- Shapes future teaching
- Protects students from discrimination: anonymous marking
The ten principles of effective feedback Effective Feedback...
- Should be for learning, not just of learning
Feedback should be primarily used as a learning tool and therefore positioned
for learning rather than as a measure of learning.
- Should be a continuous process
Rather than a one-off event after assessment, feedback should be part of
continuous guided learning and an integral part of the learning experience.
- Should be timely
Feedback should be provided in a timely manner, allowing students to apply it
to future learning and assessments. This timeframe needs to be communicated
- Should relate to clear criteria
Objectives for assessment and grade criteria need to be clearly communicated
to, and fully understood by, students. Subsequent feedback should be provided
primarily in relation to this.
- Should be constructive
If feedback is to be constructive it needs to be concise, focused and
meaningful to feed- forward, highlighting what is going well and what can be
improved. it and support future learning.
- Should be legible and clear
Feedback should be written in plain language so it can be easily understood by
all students, enabling them to engage with it and support future learning.
- Should be provided on exams
Exams make up a high proportion of assessment and students should receive
feedback on how well they did and how they could improve for the next time.
- Should include self-assessment and peer-to-peer feedback
Feedback from peers and self-assessment practices can play a powerful role in
learning by encouraging reassessment of personal beliefs and interpretations.
- Should be accessible to all students
Not all students are full-time, campus based and so universities should
utilise different technologies to ensure all students have easy access to
- Should be flexible and suited to students' needs
Students learn in different ways and therefore feedback is not "one size fits
all". Within reason students should be able to request feedback in various
formats depending on their needs.
NUS briefing papers for their "feedback amnesty" campaign:
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